Journal of Advanced Neuroscience Research  (Volume 10 Issue 1)
Ultradian and Rapid Ultradian (Hyperdian) Rhythms Modulate the Release of Neurotransmitters, Nitric Oxide and EEG Waves in the Brain at Rest janrhomeimage
Pages 1-8

Athineos Philippu


Published: 30 March 2023


Using the push-pull superfusion technique for determining the in vivo release of neurotransmitters and the neuromodulator nitric oxide in distinct brain areas revealed that they are released according to ultradian rhythms with frequencies of 135-36 min per cycle and hyperdian rhythms with frequencies of less than 30 min (24 -10 min) per cycle. The ultradian rhythm of EEG delta and theta waves amounts to 100 min per cycle. The pacemaker of the EEG and histamine rhythm is located in the hypothalamus. Simultaneous recordings of EEG and histamine release revealed that high neuronal activity of EEG coincides with low histamine release rates and vice versa. The significance of these rhythms for brain function and modulation of the activity of peripheral organs by the brain is discussed.


Brain, Push-pull superfusion, Neurotransmitters, Neuromodulators, Nitric oxide, EEG, Ultradian rhythms, Hyperdian rhythms.