Global Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion  (Volume 2 Issue 1)
 Indications and Spectrum of Haematological Disorders from Bone Marrow Aspiration Examination: A Three Year Review Study Global Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion
Pages 4-8


Timothy Amos Ekwere, Mabel Benson Ino-Ekanem and Olugbemi Oluseyi Motilewa




Published: 09 January 2015

Background: Haematological disorders have diverse modes of presentation that often requires bone marrow examination for both diagnosis and management. This simple and relatively safe procedure is important particularly in resource poor centres since access to adjuvant diagnostic techniques are often lacking or absent. This study was conducted to determine the indications and the spectrum of Haematological diseases diagnosed using this procedure.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Haematology University of Uyo Teaching Hospital from January 2011 to December 2013. Bone marrow aspiration cytology records of 62 suspected cases of haematological diseases were reviewed and analyzed using STATA software version 10.

Results: Majority of the patients who had bone marrow aspiration were adults aged 19 years and above. The male to female ratio was 1.2:1. Most (93.5%) of the marrow aspirate examined had definitive pathologic features while 4 (6.5%) were normal marrow elements. The main indications for BMA examination in order of decreasing frequency include; anaemia (37.1%), diagnosis of Leukaemia (30.7%) and pancytopaenia (5.1%). Acute leukaemia was the most common haematological disease diagnosed using this procedure. Acute myeloid leukaemia was twice as common as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Also, mixed nutritional deficiencies occurred more commonly than single nutrient deficiency.

Conclusion: The indications for BMA examination in this study are similar to those reported in other studies. This procedure remains a veritable tool in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of haematological diseases especially in a resource poor centre like ours.
Anaemia, Bone marrow aspiration cytology, Biopsy, Leukaemia.