Univariable and Group-wise Multivariable Analysis of Risk Factors for Intracerebral Hemorrhage


  • Afaq Ahmed Siddiqui Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270,
  • Muhammad Wasay Neurology Section, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi
  • S.Iqbal Azam Community Health Sciences Department, Aga Khan University, Karachi


Intracerebral hemorrhage, Clinical factors, Group-wise multivariable analysis, Chi-square, Logistic regression.


The present study involved a prospective analysis of the retrospective clinical information of patients with Intra-cerebral Hemorrhage. The data was collected using the International classification of diseases, Ninth revision diagnostic codes (431 for ICH). The diagnosis was confirmed by neuro-imaging in all patients.

The authors investigated the effects of covariates upon the outcome of ICH by performing univariable and group-wise multivariable analysis using chi-square and logistic regression.

The univariable analysis revealed that 50% of the covariates reached an acceptable significant level of p < 0.05. The group-wise multivariable analysis showed the improvement among ICH patients using antihypertensive medicine was 1.3 (ARR=1.3, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.4, p=0.0001) as compared to those who were not using antihypertensive medicine. However, at the time of discharge using antihypertensive medicine was 2.9 (ARR=2.9, 95% C.I. 2.7–3.1, p=0.0001) as compared to those who did not use antihypertensive medicine when adjusted with other variables of the group. Thus the increase in relative risk from 1.3 to 2.9 times concluded that the use of antihypertensive medication reduces the risk of occurrence of ICH due to hypertension.

Statistical inference demonstrates a direct proportion between the lowest SBP and ICH. The improvement among patients who belong to hypertensive lowest SBP group (141–160 mm Hg) was 1.02 times (p < 0.0001), for the range of (161–200) was 0.6 times (p < 0.0001) and for the range of (>200) was 0.5 times (p < 0.0001) as compared to the normal range (90 – 140), indicates that the circulatory strain levels are contrarily related.

In neurological symptomatology, headache, weakness, faintness, numbness, dizziness and unable to walk are significantly associated with ICH outcome variable in multivariable analysis. The location of the cerebellum was significantly associated with ICH. Mass effect on midline shift (p=0.0001), hydrocephalus (p=0.01) and normal (p=0.0001) were negatively associated with ICH when adjusted other variables.

Univariable and group-wise multivariable both analyses produce different outcomes. Thusly the utilization of proper schemes leads to inferences from the contemplated information.